Initially, the developers did not envision the possibility of exchanging small amounts of data between spaced apart “smart” sensors. The Wi-Fi sensor needs constant power supply, and the element of a smart GSM device will last 2-3 weeks. Not many are still ready to change batteries in dozens of devices every month or install a wired power system to them. Connecting all kinds of devices to mobile networks can still be imagined in settlements, but outside of busy highways and urbanized areas, the GSM, 3G, LTE protocols do not allow creating large-scale 1oT projects – it is too expensive to deploy and maintain a cellular network infrastructure.
Today, difficulties with the component base are a thing of the past, a new challenge has emerged: it is necessary to combine billions of “smart” devices into a single network. An intelligent machine, an oil temperature sensor on an industrial unit, a smart refrigerator – all these devices need a communication environment. Otherwise, they will remain “mute”: an ordinary counter or sensor, differing from their counterparts only in “space” design.For example, Yandex navigator can work via GPRS / 4G / 4G, and so far no other connection is suitable for this application. You can connect your smartphone to Wi-Fi and start the navigator, but as soon as the car drives away 150 meters from the hotspot, the application “ends”. And in a “smart” house, autonomous GPRS – the sensors will not “take root” – after a few days of active use of the sensors, their batteries will “run out”. Thus, energy efficient ZigBee technology is best suited for a smart home.
Indeed, many protocols have been developed for data transmission, but each of them was “sharpened” for a specific task: GSM for voice communication, GPRS for exchanging data from mobile phones, ZigBee for creating a local network and controlling smart homes, Wi-Fi for wireless local area networks with high data transfer rates. All of these IoT technologies can be applied to off-target tasks and dealt with in different ways. The developers are currently working on how to configure and combine all of this to interact with a high degree of reliability.
And, finally, the question of the possibility of jamming “useful” signals of both Wi-Fi and GSM, as well as satellite communications at the household level, remains open. This is really a problem, it is described in sufficient detail in modern literature.